The Relationship Between Christianity and Science: A Brief Historical Study on Darwinism and the Old Princeton Theologians

Penulis

  • David Tong International Reformed Evangelical Seminary (STTRII) Jakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33550/sd.v1i1.49

Abstrak

Abstract: Richard Dawkins openly declares that he is strongly against religion since religion destroys scientific works. This assumption is not something new. Since the end of the 19th century there was a development of a thesis that claims Christianity and science are two antagonistic poles. Although this thesis is now inadequate, many Christians are still holding on to this view. In realty, the development of Darwinism in the United States is also supported by Christian scientists. When we study Old Princeton theologians we find that they have different attitude about science. When they face pressure on the development of science (in this case evolution), they actually are not reticent in accepting the fact of evolution although they reject mechanistic and naturalistic interpretation of Darwinism upon those facts. Old Princeton theologians give examples on how Christian should take a stand on science. Evangelicals in Indonesia can learn a lot of from their history and tradition. KEYWORDS: Charles Hodge, Archibald Alexander Hodge, Benjamin Breckinridge Warfiled, John Gresham Machen, Old Princeton, evolution, theistic evolution, Darwinism

Unduhan

Data unduhan belum tersedia.

Referensi

Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006).

Colin A. Russell. “The Conflict of Science and Religion,” in Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction, edited by Gary B. Ferngren (Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2002).

George M. Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991).

David N. Livingstone, Darwin’s Forgotten Defenders: The Encounter between Evangelical Theology and Evolutionary Thought (Grand Rapids: MI, William B.Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1987).

Ronal L. Numbers, Darwinism Comes to America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998).

Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, 34, July 1862.

Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (New York: D. Appleton And Company, 1896).

Charles Hodge, Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology, vol. 1 (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997).

Richard Olson, “Physics,” in Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction, ed. Gary B. Ferngren (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press: 2020).

David Tong, “Quantum Indeterminacy and the Sovereignty of God,” Verbum Christi 1, no. 1 (April 2014).

Mark A. Noll, The Princeton Theology: 1812-1921 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2001).

Mark A. Noll and David N. Livingstone, “Introduction: Charles Hodge and the Definition of “Darwinism,” in What is Darwinism? and Other Writings on Science and Religion by Charles Hodge (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994).

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 25 July 2014, 12:14 UTC), available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_McCosh (Accessed 19 September, 2014).

Benjamin B. Warfield, “The Antiquity and Unity of the Human Race,” in Noll, The Princeton Theology, 292.B. B. Warfield, “Personal Reflections of Princeton Undergraduate Life: IV—The Coming of Dr. McCosh,” Princeton Alumni Weekly 16.28 (April 19, 1916): 650-53, quoted in Mark A. Noll and David N. Livingstone, “Introduction: B. B. Warfield as a Conservative Evolutionist,” in Evolution, Science, and Scripture: Selected Writings by B. B. Warfield (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000).

Benjamin B. Warfield, “Charles Darwin’s Religious Life: A Sketch in Spiritual Biography,” in Mark A. Noll and David N. Livingstone, Evolution, Science, and Scripture: Selected Writings by B. B. Warfield, (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000).

Alister McGrath, Christianity’s Dangerous Idea: The Protestant Revolution: A History from the Sixteenth Century to the Twenty-First (London: SPCK, 2007).

Ned B. Stonehouse, J. Gresham Machen: A Biographical Memoir (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1954) Bradley J. Longfield, The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists, & Moderates (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

Bradley J. Longfield, The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists, & Moderates (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

D. G. Hart, “Introduction: The Forgotten Machen?” in Selected Shorter Writings by J. Gresham Machen (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2004).

D. G. Hart, Defending the Faith: J. Gresham Machen and the Crisis of Conservative Protestantism in Modern America (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 1994).

Machen, Christianity and Liberalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1946).

Stephen J. Nichols, J. Gresham Machen: A Guided Tour of His Life and Thought (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2004).

Amzi C. Dixon, Louis Meyer, and Reuben A. Torrey, eds., The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, 12 vols. (Chicago: Testimony, 1910-1915), 12:4, quoted in Longfield, The Presbyterian Controversy.

George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).

William J. Bryan, The Bible and Its Enemies: An Address Delivered at the Moody Bible Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Bible Institute Colportage Association, 1921).

Diterbitkan

2017-10-24

Cara Mengutip

Tong, D. (2017). The Relationship Between Christianity and Science: A Brief Historical Study on Darwinism and the Old Princeton Theologians. Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama Dan Masyarakat, 1(1), 96. https://doi.org/10.33550/sd.v1i1.49