The Sharia-Based Understanding of Religious Freedom and Women's Rights in Conflict with the Secular Constitutional State


  • Christine Schirrmacher Bonn University, Germany



ABSTRACT: The areas of conflict relating to the freedom of religion and women’s rights do not affect the majority of Muslims who practice their religion in Germany and, in the process, they do not clash with the constitutional state. This is also not a matter having to do with those theologians who take their justification for comprehensive religious freedom and equal rights for women from the Koran and, respectively, other normative sources of Islam. Rather, it has to do with those influential scholars who interpret the norms and commands of Islam in such a way that conflicts arise with the laws of a secular constitutional state. These scholars defend the view that the laws of the Sharia are prior to the norms of the secular constitutional state and are obligatory for all Muslims.
At the present moment, the question of freedom of religion could be virtually understood as a topic which, in largely secularized Europe and for the religiously neutral state, possesses little relevance. To what extent do inner-Islamic standpoints interest the constitutional state on the question of religious freedom? For the constitutional state, it does not concern itself with the question of evaluating a religion and its doctrinal content. This also applies with respect to Islam. There, however, where actions are justified by religious convictions, or where they follow from them or are declared to be mandatory by influential religious opinion leaders, and where these actions infringe upon established law or limit the basic rights of individuals, the state and its representatives have to concern themselves with these convictions, independent of whether these convictions are of a religious, political, or of a religious and political nature. KEYWORDS: Germany, Islam, freedom of religion, women’s rights, the constitutional state, conflicts


Data unduhan belum tersedia.

Referensi, (in English and Arabic), and M. Michot.

“Qaradawi’s Tahrir Square Sermon: Text and Comments.” english/shariah/contemporary-issues/interviews-reviews-and-events/451341-the-tahrir-square-sermon-of-sheikh-al-qaradawi.html?Events= (accessed February 21, 2012).

Ermete Mariani, Youssef Al-Qaradawi: “Pouvoir Médiatique, Économique et Symbolique” in: Frank Mermier (ed.), Mondialisation et nouveaux médias dans l’espace arabe, Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris, 2003, 195-203, here 201f.

Maktabat wahba: al-Qahira, 20091, Vol. 1, 29ff.

Sarah Albrecht, Islamisches Minderheitenrecht. Yusuf al-Qaradawis Konzept des fiqh al-aqalliyat, Ergon: Würzburg, 2010, 19f.

“Die gesamte israelische Gesellschaft ist eine militärische Gemeinschaft”: Yusuf al-Qaradawi, min hady al-islam. fatawa al-mu’asira, 4 Vols., Dar al-qalam li-n-nashr wa-’t-tauzi‘ bi-’l-Kuwait/al-QÃ¥hira, 200911, Vol. 4, 790-7, here p. 795. (accessed January 14, 2012). (accessed January 14, 2012).

Abdullah Saeed/Hassan Saeed, Freedom of Religion, Apostasy and Islam (Ashgate: Aldershot, 2004).

“Yusuf al-Qaradawi and the Muslim Brotherhood” in: Jakob Skovgaard-Petersen/Bettina Gräf (eds.), Global Mufti. The Phenomenon of Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Hurst & Company: London, 2009, 55-83, here p. 58.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi, al-halal wa-’l-haram fi ’l-islam, Dar ihya’ al-kutub al-‘arabiya, al-Qahira, 1960, 237

Ahmad von Denffer (trans.), Jusuf al-Qaradawi. Erlaubtes und Verbotenes im Islam, SKD Bavaria: München, 1989, 175.

Yusuf al-Qaradawi, al-halal wa-’l-haram fi ’l-islam, Dar ihya’ al-kutub al-‘arabiya, al-Qahira, 1960, 145.

Hayrettin Karaman, Erlaubtes und Verwehrtes, translated from Turkish by H. Achmed Schmiede (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfi: Ankara, 1996).

Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Towards an Islamic Reformation. Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law, Syracuse University Press: New York, 1990.

Abdullah Saeed, "Reading the Quran" in: Amyn B. Sajoo (ed.), A Companion to the Muslim World, I. B. Tauris Publishers: London, 2009, 55-85.

Abdullah Saeed, "A Fresh Look at Freedom of Belief in Islam" in: Damien Kingsbury/Greg Barton (eds.), Difference and Tolerance. Human Rights Issues in Southeast Asia (Deakin University Press: Geelong, 1994) (April 13, 2010), as well as: Abdullah Saeed, “Creating a Culture of Human Rights from a Muslim Perspective” in: Swee-Hin Toh/Virginia F. Cawagas (eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium Cultivating Wisdom, Harvesting Peace. Education for a Culture of Peace through Values, Virtues, and Spirituality of Diverse Cultures, Faiths, and Civilizations (Multi-Faith Centre, Griffith University: Brisbane, 2006). (accessed May 20, 2011).

Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, "Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights" in: Johan D. Van der Vyver/John Jr. Witte (eds.), Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective. Religious Perspectives (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers: Den Haag, 1996).

Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Islam and the Secular State. Negotiating the Future of Shari'a, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, 2008.



Cara Mengutip

Schirrmacher, C. (2015). The Sharia-Based Understanding of Religious Freedom and Women’s Rights in Conflict with the Secular Constitutional State. Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama Dan Masyarakat, 2(2), 366.