Pembatasan Kebebasan Beragama Dan Berkeyakinan Di Indonesia Serta Implikasinya

Limitation The Religion And Belief Freedom In Indonesia And Their Implications

Authors

  • Rohit Mahatir Manese Pascasarjana IIS UIN Sunan Kalijaga Jogjakarta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33550/sd.v8i1.209

Abstract

This article aims to describe caused the restriction of religion and belief freedom and its implications in Indonesia. The author’s argument on the ownership that limitation of the religion and belief freedom in Indonesia which have mainstreams about religious values and blasphemy. It causes diversity in Indonesia to limited pluralism experience. With the perspective of pluralism, limiting the religion and belief freedom is carried out by the state makes ancestral religions which is not declared as official religions. Apart from making the state that recognizes only six religions, this statement contradicts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant. By using the literature review method, this article finds that the religion and belief freedom in Indonesia experiences delimited pluralism so this condition brings to negotiated on ancestral religions and intolerance to minority groups.

Keywords: Freedom of Religion and Belief; Religious Value; Delimited Pluralism; Discrimination; Intolerance.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Rohit Mahatir Manese, Pascasarjana IIS UIN Sunan Kalijaga Jogjakarta

Born in Belang 19 July 1996. He is an active student in the Interdisciplinary Islamic Studies (IIS) Postgraduate Program at the Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN­Suka) Jogjakarta. He holds a bachelor's degree at the Manado State Islamic Institute (IAIN). His research is Religious Freedom, Minority Studies and the Relationship between Religion and Politics. He has also produced several papers in academic journals.

References

Abidin, Zainal, dkk. "Limitations to Freedom of Religion or Belief in Indonesia: Norms and Practice." Religion and Human Rights 15 (2020): 39-56. Diakses 10 Januari 2021. https://doi.org/10.1163/18710328-BJA10003.

Bagir Abidin, Zainal, dkk. “Membatasi Tanpa Melanggar, Hak Kebebasan Beragama atau Berkeyakinan.” CRCS UGM (2019).

Budiwanti, Erni, “Pluralism Collapses: A Study of the Jama’ah Ahmadiyah Indonesia and its Persecution” Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore ARI Working Paper no. 117 (Juni 2009): 1-26. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1645144.

Burhani Najib, Ahmad. “Agama, Kultur (In)toleransi, dan Dilema Minoritas di Indonesia.” Dalam Orasi Pengukuhan Profesor Riset Bidang Agama dan Tradisi Keagamaan. Jakarta: LIPI, 2020.

Burhani Najib, Ahmad. “Fundamentalism and Religious dissent: the LPPI’s mission to eradicate the Ahmadiyyah in Indonesia.” Indonesia and the Malay World 16 (2020): 189-223. Diakses 30 Desember 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2015.1135610.

Burhani Najib, Ahmad. “Fundamentalism and Religious dissent: the LPPI’s mission to eradicate the Ahmadiyyah in Indonesia.” Indonesia and the Malay World 44, no. 129 (201620): 145-164. Diakses 30 Desember 2020. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2015.1135610.

Colbran, Nicola. “Realities and challenges in realising freedom of religion or belief in Indonesia.” The London, International Journal of Human Rights 14, no. 5 (September 2010): 678–704. Diakses 30 Desember 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642980903155166.

Djafar, Alamsyah. Intoleransi Memahami Kebencian Atas Nama Agama. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo, 2018.

Djafar, Alamsyah. Rekomendasi Kebijakan Perlunya Langkah Terobosan Pemerintah, Satu Dekade Pemantauan Kemerdekaan Beragama dan Berkeyakinan (KBB) Wahid Foundation. Jakarta: Wahid Foundation, 2020.

Erdianto, Kristian. “MK: Kolom Agama di KTP dan KK Dapat Ditulis "Penghayat Kepercayaan”.”Kompas. 7 November 2017. Diakses 20 Februari 2021. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/11/07/13020811/mk-kolom-agama-di-ktp-dan-kk-dapat-ditulis-penghayat-kepercayaan?page=all.

Faiq, Tobroni. “Pembedaan Beragama dan Penodaan Agama (Studi Putusan No 69/Pid. B/2012/PN. Spg). ”al-Jinâyah: Jurnal Hukum Pidana Islam 5, no. 2 (Desember 2019): 489–501. https://doi.org/10.15642/aj.2019.5.2.489-510.

Fauzi Ali, Ishan, dkk. “Kajian tentang Kebebasan Beragama dan Berkeyakinan dan Implikasinya untuk Kebijakan.” Dalam Kebebasan, Toleransi dan Terorisme Riset dan Kebijakan Agama di Indonesia dkk. Jakarta: PUSAD, 2017.

Florentine, Vindry. “Ini Kronologi Pengusiran Jemaat Ahmadiyah di Bangka.” Tempo. 9 Februari 2016. Diakses 5 Mei 2020. https://www.insideindonesia.org/one-year-after-the-cikeusik-tragedy.

Haili, dkk, Melawan Intoleransi di Tahun Politik, Kondisi Kebebasan Beragama/Bekeyakinan di Indonesia Tahun 2018. Jakarta: Pustaka Masyarakat Setara, 2018.

Hasanuddin, Iqbal. “Hak atas Kebebasan Beragama/Berkeyakinan: Sebuah Upaya Pendasaran Filosofis.” Societas Dei 4, no. 1 (April 2018): 96 - 112. Diakses 15 Februari 2021. http:// doi.org/10.33550/sd.v4i1.44.

Howell, Julia. “Muslims, The New Age and Marginal Religions in Indonesia: Changing Meanings Of Religious Pluralism.” Jurnal Sagepub London: Social Compass. (2005): 474-495. Diakses 26 Desember 2021. https://doi.org/10.1177/0037768605058151.

Imparsial. “Negara Harus Hadir dalam Melindungi Kebebasan Beragama atau Berkeyakinan.” Imparsial: The Human Rights Monitor, 17 November 2019. Diakses 13 Maret 2021. https://imparsial.org/hari-toleransi-internasional-negara-harus-hadir-dalam-melindungi-kebebasan-beragama-atau-berkeyakinan/.

Jayyidan, Falakhi, Manese Mahatir Rohit. “Pengikut Sapta Darma di Tengah Pluralitas Terbatas.” Palita: Journal of Social Religion Research 5 (April 2020). Diakses 5 Mei 2020. https://doi.org/10.24256/pal.v5i1.1273.

Lubis Ultri, Heldania. “SETARA: Pelanggaran Kebebasan Beragama Tertinggi Ada di Jabar.” Detik, 29 Januari 2017. Diakses 20 Februari 2021. https://news.detik.com/berita/d-3408393/setara-pelanggaran-kebebasan-beragama-tertinggi-ada-di-jabar.

Majelis Umum PBB, Deklarasi Universal Hak-Hak Asasi Manusia. Diterima dan diumumkan oleh majelis Umum melalui resolusi 217 A (III) Paris: 217 A, 1948, 1-6. Diakses 2 April 2021. https://www.komnasham.go.id/files/1475231326-deklarasi-universal-hak-asasi--$R48R63.pdf.

Maria, Grant J, dan Bootht Andrew. “A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies.” Journal compilation, Health Information and Libraries Journal, (2009): 91-108. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x.

Mariani Noor, Nina. “Ahmadiyah, conflicts, and violence in contemporary Indonesia.” Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies (IJIMS) 3, no. 1 (June 2013): 1-30. Diakses 5 Mei 2020. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12424/157174.

Marizal, Lutfy M., “Ini 11 Kasus Pelanggaran Kebebasan Beragama Berkeyakinan 3 Bulan Terakhir.” Kompas, 1 Juli 2016. Diakses 24 Februari 2021, https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2016/07/01/05050071/Ini.11.Kasus.Pelanggaran.Kebebasan.Beragama.atau.Berkeyakinan.3.Bulan.Terakhir?page=all.

Mega Purnamasari, Deti. “Riset PPIM UIN Jakarta: 30,16 Persen Mahasiswa Indonesia Intoleran.” Kompas, 2 Maret 2021. Diakses 13 Maret 2021. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2021/03/02/13353621/riset-ppim-uin-jakarta-3016-persen-mahasiswa-indonesia-intoleran?page=all.

Millie, Julian. “One Year after the Cikeusik Tragedy.” Inside Indonesia no. 107 (Januari–Maret 2012). Diakses 5 Mei 2020. https://www.insideindonesia.org/one-year-after-the-cikeusik-tragedy.

Nadlir, Moh. “Tahun 2017: Pelanggaran Kebebasan Beragama Terbanyak di Jawa Barat.” Kompas. 15 Januari 2018. Diakses 20 Februari 2021. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2018/01/15/18233341/tahun-2017-pelanggaran-kebebasan-beragama-terbanyak-di-jawa-barat.

Puneri Selim, Delmus. “Kerukunan Umat Beragama Vs Kebebasan Beragama di Indonesia.” Jurnal Potret Pemikiran 21, no. 2, (Juli -Desember 2017): 15–35. Diakses 21 Desember 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.30984/pp.v21i2.741.

Raco, J. R. Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Jenis, Karakteristik, dan Keunggulannya. Jakarta: Grasindo, 2010.

Rafsadi, Irsyad. “Catatan Satu Dasawarsa Pengukuran dan Pemantauan, dalam Kebebasan Beragama di Indonesia.” Dalam Toleransi dan Terorisme Riset dan Kebijakan Agama di Indonesia, ed. Ihsan Ali-Fauzi, Zainal Abidin Bagir, & Irsyad Rafsadi. Jakarta: Pusad Paramadina, 2017.

Republik Indonesia, Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945, pasal 28. Jakarta: Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2002. Diakses 2 April 2002. https://luk.staff.ugm.ac.id/atur/UUD1945.pdf.

Republik Indonesia. Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 12 Tahun 2005 Tentang Pengesahan Internartional Covenant On Civil And Political Rights: Kovenan Internasional Tentang Hak-Hak Sipil dan Politik. Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia nomor 119. Jakarta, Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, 2005. Diakses 20 Maret 2021. https://www.dpr.go.id/doksetjen/dokumen/-Regulasi-UU-No.-12-Tahun-2005-Tentang-Pengesahan-Kovenan-Internasional-Tentang-Hak-Hak-Sipil-dan-Politik-1552380410.pdf.

Situmorang, Victoria H. “Kebebasan Beragama Sebagai Bagian dari Hak Asasi Manusia.” Jurnal Penelitian HAM 10, no. 1 (Juli 2019): 57-67. Diakses 13 Januari 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.30641/ham.2019.10.57-67, https://core.ac.uk/reader/268381800.

Sukirno. “Diskriminasi Pemenuhan Hak sipil Bagi Penganut Agama Lokal.” Administrative Law & Governance Journal 1, (3 Agustus 2018): 231-239. Diakses 10 Januari 2021. https://doi.org/10.14710/alj.v1i3.231-239.

Sulaiman, “Problem Pelayanan terhadap Kelompok Penghayatan Kepercayaan di Pati, Jawa Tengah.” Jurnal SMaRT Studi Masyarakat, Religi dan Tradisi 4, no. 2 (Desember 2018): 207-220. Diakses 13 Januari 2021. https://doi.org/10.18784/smart.v4i2.649.

Tore, Lidhlom. “Philosophical and Religious Justifications of Freedom of Religion or Belief.” In Tore Lindholm, W. Cole Durham, Jr., Bahia G. Tahzib-Lie, ed. Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook. Springer: 2004.

Tuasikal, Rio. “Penghayat Kepercayaan Masih Sulit Revisi Kolom Agama KTP.” VOA Indonesia. 3 April 2019. Diakses 13 Maret 2021. https://www.voaindonesia.com/a/penghayat-kepercayaan-masih-sulit-revisi-kolom-agama-ktp/4858804.html.

Wahab Jamil, Abdul dan Fakhruddin. “Menakar Efektivitas SKB Tentang Ahmadiyah dan faktor Penyebabnya: Studi Kasus Konflik Ahmadiyah di Desa Gereneng Lombok Timur.” Jurnal Multikultural & Multireligius 17 (2019): 443-459. Diakses 15 Februari 2021. https://doi.org/10.32488/harmoni.v18i1.356.

Wijayana, Diah. “Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia Masyarakat Minoritas Jemaat Ahmadiyah (Studi Kasus: Perusakan Masjid Al-Kautsar Jemaat Ahamdiyah di Desa Purworejo Kecamatan Ringinarum Kendal Tahun 2016).” Journal of Politic and Government Studies 8, no. 3 (Juli 2019): 91-100. Diakses 15 Februari. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/jpgs/article/view/24061.

Published

2021-04-26

How to Cite

Manese, R. M. (2021). Pembatasan Kebebasan Beragama Dan Berkeyakinan Di Indonesia Serta Implikasinya: Limitation The Religion And Belief Freedom In Indonesia And Their Implications. Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama Dan Masyarakat, 8(1), 85–107. https://doi.org/10.33550/sd.v8i1.209