Revisiting Secularism in Western Christendom: A Theological and Sociological Approach
The objective of this article is to revisit the process of secularization in the decline of Christian religion in the West through a theological and societal discussion on a theoretical level. By arguing a societal perspective alone is insufficient to providesÂ a specific explanation to religious decline, a theological perspective would providesÂ a prior explanation to further clarify how the process of secularization operates in relation to the internal dynamic of the Christian religion. The expositionsÂ of such arguments would argue that the process of secularization can be differentiates into several parts: The objectivation ofÂ Christian beliefs for capitalism in European industrialization, the de-attachment of individual to spiritual faith, and the process of individualization and consumerism that deconstructs religion in postmodernity. This article will posit the theological Kierkegaardian view of Christendom in dialogue with sociological arguments on modernity and postmodernity, and also to relate such findings into the Indonesian context to providesÂ conceptual anticipation for postmodern social changes.
KEYWORDS: secularism, christendom, Kierkegaard, modernity, liquid modernity, community.Â
Amitai Etzioni. The New Golden Rule: Community and Morality in a Democratic Society. New York (Basic Books, 1996), 187.
Bilangan Research Center. Temuan Hasil Survei Spiritualitas Generasi Muda Kristen Indonesia. (Jakarta: Bilangan Research Center, 2018), 18.
Callum Brown. “What Was the Religious Crisis of the 1960s?” Journal of Religious History 34, no.4 (2010): 468–79.
Callum Brown. Death of Christian Britain: Understanding Secularisation 1800-2000. London: Routledge, 2001.
Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.
James Coleman. “The Rational Reconstruction of Society: 1992 Presidential Address.” American Sociological Association 58, no. 1 (2018): 1–15.
John Locke. A Letter Concerning Toleration. Indiana: Liberty Fund Inc, 2010.
Martin Buber. Between Man and Man. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1994.
Martin Buber. I and Thou. Edinburg: T.&T. Clark, 1986.
Max Weber. Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpreting Sociology. California: University of California Press, 1978 215.
Max Weber. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Routledge, 1992.
Peter Berger. “Secular Theology and the Rejection of the Supernatural: Reflection on Recent Trends.” Theological Studies 38, no. 1 (1977): 39–56.
Peter Berger. Questions of Faith: A Skeptical Affirmation of Christianity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004.
Soren Kierkegaard. Attack Upon Christendom. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1968.
Soren Kierkegaard. Concluding Unscientific Postscript. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Thomas William Heyck. “The Decline of Christianity in Twentieth-Century Britain.” North American Conference on British Studies 28, no. 3 (2018): 437–53.
Timothy Keller. The Prodigal God: Recovering the Heart of Christian Faith. New York: Penguin Group, 2008.
Titus Hjelm. “Peter L. Berger and the Sociology of Religion.” Journal of Classical Sociology 18, 3 (2018): 231–48.
Zygmunt Bauman. Liquid Love. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003.
Zygmunt Bauman. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000.
Zygmunt Bauman. Postmodernity and Its Discontents. New York: New York University Press, 1997.
Hak Cipta (c) 2020 Reformed Center for Religion and Society
Artikel ini berlisensi Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.