Revisiting Secularism in Western Christendom: A Theological and Sociological Approach


  • Kevin Nobel Kurniawan Universitas Indonesia



The objective of this article is to revisit the process of secularization in the decline of Christian religion in the West through a theological and societal discussion on a theoretical level. By arguing a societal perspective alone is insufficient to provides a specific explanation to religious decline, a theological perspective would provides a prior explanation to further clarify how the process of secularization operates in relation to the internal dynamic of the Christian religion. The expositions of such arguments would argue that the process of secularization can be differentiates into several parts: The objectivation of Christian beliefs for capitalism in European industrialization, the de-attachment of individual to spiritual faith, and the process of individualization and consumerism that deconstructs religion in postmodernity. This article will posit the theological Kierkegaardian view of Christendom in dialogue with sociological arguments on modernity and postmodernity, and also to relate such findings into the Indonesian context to provides conceptual anticipation for postmodern social changes.

KEYWORDS: secularism, christendom, Kierkegaard, modernity, liquid modernity, community. 


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Biografi Penulis

Kevin Nobel Kurniawan, Universitas Indonesia

He earned a Bachelor of Social Science Sociology from the University of Indonesia (2017). In 2020, he graduated from the Master of Social and Political Thought, University of Leeds. After pursuing Master’s studies in sociology at the University of Leeds to explore Zygmunt Bauman’s thoughts on the Holocaust and Ethics of Judaism, the author returned to teach and conduct sociological research in Calvin High School and the University of Indonesia. In the field of sociology, the author has an interest in exploring topics about Classical and Contemporary Sociology of Thought, Family Sociology, Sociology of Religion, Educational Sociology, and Sociology of Social Change. The author also has an interest in exploring the fields of psychology, philosophy and theology that are based on the thought traditions of Augustine, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Buber. He has produced several books and articles in various journals. He is an active lecturer in Sociology at the University of Indonesia and the Calvin Christian School. He can be reached at


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Cara Mengutip

Kurniawan, K. N. (2020). Revisiting Secularism in Western Christendom: A Theological and Sociological Approach. Societas Dei: Jurnal Agama Dan Masyarakat, 7(1), 35.